Air conditioning (often referred to as AC, A.C., or A/C) is the process of removing or adding heat from / to a space, thus cooling or heating the space’s average temperature. Air conditioning can be used in both domestic and commercial environments. This process is most commonly used to achieve a more comfortable interior environment, typically for humans or animals; however, air conditioning is also used to cool / dehumidify rooms filled with heat-producing electronic devices, such as computer servers, power amplifiers, and even to display and store artwork. In the most general sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of technology that modifies the condition of air (heating, cooling, (de-)humidification, cleaning, ventilation, or air movement).
Name of Faculty
23rd October, 2015
Prof. Ameya More
Air-conditioning engineers broadly divide air conditioning applications into comfort and process applications.
- An array of air conditioners outside a commercial office building.
- Comfort applications aim to provide a building indoor environment that remains relatively constant despite changes in external weather conditions or in internal heat loads.
- Air conditioning makes deep plan buildings feasible, for otherwise they would have to be built narrower or with light wells so that inner spaces received sufficient outdoor air via natural ventilation. Air conditioning also allows buildings to be taller, since wind speed increases significantly with altitude making natural ventilation impractical for very tall buildings. Comfort applications are quite different for various building types and may be categorized as:
- Commercial buildings, which are built for commerce, including offices, malls, shopping centres, restaurants, etc.
- High-rise residential buildings, such as tall dormitories and apartment blocks
- Industrial spaces where thermal comfort of workers is desired
- Cars, aircraft, boats, which transport passenger or fresh goods
- Institutional buildings, which includes government buildings, hospitals, schools, etc.
- Low-rise residential buildings, including single-family houses, duplexes, and small apartment buildings
- Sports stadiums, such as the University of Phoenix Stadium  and in Qatar for the 2022 FIFA World Cup.
Air conditioning is common in the US, with 88% of new single-family homes constructed in 2011 including air conditioning, ranging from 99% in the South to 62% in the West. In Canada, air conditioning use varies by province. In 2013, 55% of Canadian households reported having an air conditioner, with high use in Manitoba (80%), Ontario (78%), Saskatchewan (67%) and Quebec (54%) and lower use in Prince Edward Island (23%), British Columbia (21%) and Newfoundland and Labrador (9%). In Europe, home air conditioning is generally less common. Southern European countries such as Greece have seen a wide proliferation of home air-conditioning units in recent years.  In another southern European country, Malta, it is estimated that around 55% of households have an air conditioner installed.  In India AC sales have dropped by 40% [clarification needed] due to higher costs and stricter energy efficiency regulations.
Process applications aim to provide a suitable environment for a process being carried out, regardless of internal heat and humidity loads and external weather conditions. It is the needs of the process that determine conditions, not human preference.
Process applications include these:
- Chemical and biological laboratories
- Cleanrooms for the production of integrated circuits, pharmaceuticals, and the like, in which very high levels of air cleanliness and control of temperature and humidity are required for the success of the process.
- Environmental control of data centres
- Food cooking and processing areas
- Hospital operating theatres, in which air is filtered to high levels to reduce infection risk and the humidity controlled to limit patient dehydration. Although temperatures are often in the comfort range, some specialist procedures, such as open heart surgery, require low temperatures (about 18 °C, 64 °F) and others, such as neonatal, relatively high temperatures (about 28 °C, 82 °F).
This seminar was very helpful for students to understand practical applications of different air conditioning systems. The response from the students for the particular topic was overwhelming. This topic fulfils the gap in the curriculum for Refrigeration and air conditioning subject.